Mobbing akademicki w Turcji

mobbing lektura

Y. Tigrel,O. Kokalan, – Academic Mobbing in Turkey

International Journal of Behavioral, Cognitive, Educational and Psychological Sciences 1:2 2009

…….

In the second part of the research, interviews were conducted with 6 out of 12 participants who stated that they had suffered from mobbing. One of the 6 academicians who participated in the interviews was professor, 1 was assistant professor and 4 were research assistants. 2 of these participants worked in state universities and 4 of them worked in private universities.

In the research, mobbing in the setting was rated as stage 5. This rating system starts with the 1st stage which carries the lowest mobbing symptoms and ends with 5th stage which carries the highest mobbing symptoms. The symptoms of the 1st stage are usually not detected as mobbing symptoms whereas the symptoms of the last stage can easily be designated as mobbing by anybody. At the end of the interviews it was seen that all of the participants had obviously suffered from mobbing. It was found that all participants had frequently encountered 2nd, 3rd and 4th stage mobbing symptoms. Furthermore it was found that some participants had encountered much more serious mobbing behaviors. At the end of the interviews it was found that the lightest and the heaviest symptoms had not been applied many times on the participants by the mobbers. It is thought that the reason that very heavy symptoms like „Physical violence” and „Sexual Abuse” were not used was the workplace environment.

As a result of the interviews it was observed that the most frequent symptoms that mobbers used on the participants were “making up gossips and rumors”, “ignoring”, “assignment of unimportant duties”, “hiding important information related to the work”, “undervaluation of efforts”, “stealing his/her ideas”, „having meetings when he/she is absent”, “continuously controlling him/her” and “verbal harassment”.

All participants stated that most of these behaviors were conducted publicly. For example a researcher working in a private university expressed that the teachers in his/her department were calling him/her “idiot” in a half funny-half serious manner and that although he/she told them that he/she felt discomfort about that situation his/her teachers kept calling him/her as such with the reason that he/she would be highly motivated as a consequence.

The professor and two assistants who participated in the interview stated that they were controlled regarding whether they attended classes, and even whether they were present in the school even if they had nothing to do in the school right then. The assistant professor in the interview explained that indecent gossips were made up about him/her and that these gossips were spread very easily even to the closest friend of him/her in the department. The interviewed professor stated that when he/she saw his/her coworkers from the same department of him/her in the lunch and he/she greeted them they ignored him/her even though they looked into each other’s eyes.

The participants expressed that they were not exposed to behaviors like “teasing about personal qualifications like religion and ethnicity”, “physical violence”, “sexual abuse” and “harming personal belongings”. Two of the participants explained that mobbers could not dare to employ these kinds of behaviors (offences) as these behaviors have heavy legal consequences. These participants stated that the absence of these kinds of mobbing behaviors was connected with the academic acquaintances of the mobber as the mobber knew very well that no one from his/her academic acquaintances would acknowledge the mentioned behaviors. According to the participants it was highly possible to encounter these symptoms in other jobs.

As a consequence of the interviews lecturers stated that they had been mobbed by other teachers, university management, assistants and students. For example the interviewed professor expressed that his/her department associates organized the students and got them to mob him/her.

The same participant stated that he/she was ignored by the university management although the management was aware of his/her talents and that the duties she should have been assigned were assigned to some others.

As for the assistants, they explained that they were mostly mobbed by the teachers who were working in the same department they were working in. For example, an assistant working in a state university stated that a teacher who was helping to all other assistants had not been helping to him/her and that this teacher had made up gossips about him/her.

In the literature it is shown that the incidence of psychological disorders in mobbing victims is high. It was observed that all interviewed academicians asserted that they underwent depression because of the mobbing behaviors they had encountered.

For example, the interviewed professor stated that because of mobbing he/she underwent a heavy depression, he/she could not even get out of his/her house, he/she had a major motivation problem and that he/she used medicine consequently.

As for the associate professor he/she expressed that he/she had overcome this period by having undergone therapy sessions.

Many of the participants stated that they had psychological disorders even up to having suffered from paranoia.

For instance an assistant stated that whenever two people whispered to each other he/she thought that they talked about him/her and that he/she became paranoid.

All participants stated that when they first began to be mobbed they were not aware that they had been being mobbed, that’s why they thought they themselves were responsible for what happened during mobbing period and put the blame on them consequently.

They expressed that they developed counter behaviors as afterwards they became aware of mobbing. Whereas some of the participants explained that they developed aggressive behaviors against mobbers at the end of the period, some others pointed out that they only engaged in professional business relations with the mobbers and that they never communicated with them in any other ways. For example, the interviewed professor stated that at the beginning of the mobbing period he/she always put the blame on himself/herself but afterwards as he/she saw the reality he/she tried to mob the ones who had mobbed him/her before.

At the end of the interviews all participants shared that the mobbing behaviors they had been exposed to were successful and that they wanted to change their jobs when possible.

For example an assistant said that he/she was looking for another job and that she would quit his/her current job as soon as he/she found a new job. As for the professor, he/she stated that he/she would enter into an agreement with another university and go abroad for a year and the only reason for this was such behaviors.

It is seen that the alterations in the psychologies of the participants resulting from mobbing are very similar to psychological alterations seen in people in the literature who suffered from mobbing as well……….

Nursing Ethics, Vol. 14, No. 4, 447-463 (2007)

Mobbing Behaviors Encountered By Nurse Teaching Staff

Dilek YildirimBaskent University, Health Science Faculty, Nursing and Health Services Department, Baglica Campus, Ankara, Turkey, dilekyildirim2005@hotmail.com

Aytolan Yildirim

Istanbul University, Sisli/Istanbul, Turkey

Arzu Timucin

Istanbul University, Sisli/Istanbul, Turkey

The term `mobbing’ is defined as antagonistic behaviors with unethical communication directed systematically at one individual by one or more individuals in the workplace. This cross-sectionaland descriptive study was conducted for the purpose of determining the mobbing behaviors encountered by nursing school teaching staff in Turkey, its effect on them, and their responses tothem. A large percentage (91%) of the nursing school employees who participated in this study reported that they had encountered mobbing behaviors in the institution where they work and 17%that they had been directly exposed to mobbing in the workplace. The academic staff who had been exposed to mobbing behaviors experienced various physiological, emotional and social reactions. They frequently `worked harder and [were] more organized’ and `worked very carefully to avoid criticism’ to escape from mobbing. In addition, 9% of the participants stated that they `thoughtabout suicide occasionally’.

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